I have successfully reverse engineered a good portion of the Android binary XML file format that is found inside of Android package files (.apk). With this tool, you can explore the XML layout, drawable, and animation files used in the applications distributed with the SDK (phone, browser, contacts, etc). My primary motivation for doing this was to simply observe some of the common practices and get a sense for what Google is doing internally that isn't necessarily available through their API demos and samples. Below you can find two links to download either the stand-alone convertor or the collected output as run over every APK file found in the phone's /system directory:
Please note that this tool was a very quick hack and some of the XML files I found failed to parse. Not many, and the only ones I found were raw XML documents (not Android resources) so I didn't bother to explore any further incompatibilities. If you find any resources that fail to parse or have any insight into the format, feel free to leave a comment and I will investigate when I have time.
EDIT 2012-08-22: Android's come a long way since this post. It's now possible to use the aapt tool to read the contents of XML documents (and a whole lot more) of APK files. For example:
android dump xmltree foo.apk AndroidManifest.xml